2 (philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno
school of philosophy
- German: Stoizismus
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BCE. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed in 529 CE by the Emperor Justinian I, who perceived their pagan character to be at odds with his Christian faith. The core doctrine of Stoicism concerns cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that virtue is to maintain a will that is in accord with nature.
In the life of the individual man, virtue is the sole good; such things as health, happiness, possessions, are of no account. Since virtue resides in the will, everything really good or bad in a man's life depends only upon himself. He may become poor, but what of it? He can still be virtuous. A tyrant may put him in prison, but he can still persevere in living in harmony with Nature. He may be sentenced to death, but he can die nobly, like Socrates. Therefore every man has perfect freedom, provided he emancipates himself from mundane desires.
Basic tenetsStoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos). A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual’s ethical and moral well-being: "Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature." and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all alike are sons of God."
The Stoic ethic espouses a deterministic perspective, in regards to those who lack Stoic virtue; Cleanthes once opined that the wicked man is "like a dog tied to a cart, and compelled to go wherever it goes." to the point where, in the words of Gilbert Murray, "nearly all the successors of Alexander [...] professed themselves Stoics."
HistoryStoicism first appeared in Athens in the Hellenistic period around 301 BC and was introduced by Zeno of Citium. He taught in the famous Stoa Poikile (i.e., "the painted porch"), from which his philosophy got its name. Central to his teachings was the law of morality being the same as nature. During its initial phase, Stoicism was generally seen as a back-to-nature movement critical of superstitions and taboos. The philosophical detachment also encompassed pain and misfortune, good or bad experiences, as well as life or death. Zeno often challenged prohibitions, traditions and customs. Another tenet was the emphasis placed on love for all other beings.
Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, Antisthenes, had been a disciple of Socrates. Zeno's most influential follower was Chrysippus, who was responsible for the molding of what we now call Stoicism.
The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic, non-dualistic physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the main focus of human knowledge, though their logical theories were to be of more interest for many later philosophers. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control. Modern philosophy, contrary to original Stoicism, often associates Stoicism with determinism, as opposed to the Arminian doctrine of free will.
Stoic logicThe Stoics believed in the certainty of knowledge, which can be attained through the use of reason. Truth can be distinguished from fallacy, even if in practice only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the senses are constantly receiving sensations: pulsations which pass from objects through the senses to the mind, where they leave behind an impression (phantasia). The mind has the ability (synkatathesis) to approve or reject an impression, to enable it to distinguish a representation of reality which is true from one which is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can only achieve varying degrees of hesitant approval which can be labelled belief or opinion (doxa). It is only through the use of reason that we can achieve clear comprehension and conviction (katalepsis). Certain and true knowledge (episteme), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of one's peers and the collective judgement of humankind.
Make for yourself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to you, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell yourself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to you in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole.
Stoic physics and cosmologyAccording to the Stoics, the universe is a material, reasoning, substance, known as God or Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter, which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion." The active substance, which can be called Fate, or Universal Reason (Logos), is a substance, intelligent aether or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter: The universe itself is god and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same world's guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality which embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained.
Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter which it governs. The souls of people and animals are emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate:
Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things which exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web.
Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be "transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason (logos spermatikos) of the Universe." Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to Reason, that is, to live a life according to Nature.
Stoic ethics and virtuesThe ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts in the past than they do today. The word stoic has come to mean unemotional or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from passion by following reason. The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions, rather they sought to transform them by a resolute askēsis which enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm. Logic, reflection, and concentration were the methods of such self-discipline.
Borrowing from the Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: "Follow where reason leads." One must therefore strive to be free of the passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of passion was "anguish" or "suffering", that is, "passively" reacting to external events — somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between pathos (plural pathe) which is normally translated as "passion", propathos or instinctive reaction (e.g. turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and eupathos, which is the mark of the Stoic sage (sophos). The eupatheia are feelings resulting from correct judgment in the same way as the passions result from incorrect judgment.
The idea was to be free of suffering through apatheia (απαθεια) (Greek) or apathy, where apathy was understood in the ancient sense — being objective or having "clear judgment" — rather than simple indifference, as apathy implies today. Stoic apatheia is rather the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows - getting carried away by neither.
For the Stoics, reason meant not only using logic, but also understanding the processes of nature — the logos, or universal reason, inherent in all things. Living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are wisdom (Sophia), courage (Andreia), justice (Dikaiosyne), and temperance (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of Plato.
Following Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and evil are the results of ignorance. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason. Likewise, if they are unhappy, it is because they have forgotten how nature actually functions. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy — to examine one's own judgments and behaviour and determine where they have diverged from the universal reason of nature.
The doctrine of "things indifferent"In philosophical terms, things which are indifferent are outside the application of moral law, that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or which do not affect morality, are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent (, adiaphora) arose in the Stoic school as a corollary of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice ( καθήκοντα kathekon and ἁμαρτήματα hamartemata, respectively "convenient actions," or actions in accordance with nature, and mistakes). As a result of this dichotomy, a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent.
Eventually three sub-classes of "things indifferent" developed: things to be preferred because they assisted life according to nature; things to be avoided because they hindered it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense.
The principle of was also common to the Cynics and Sceptics. The conception of things indifferent is, according to Kant, extra-moral. The doctrine of things indifferent was revived during the Renaissance by Philip Melanchthon.
Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or askesis, see ascetic). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of Eastern meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions, hypomnemata, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.
Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill... I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together...
Social PhilosophyA distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism. All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In the Discourses, Epictetus comments on man's relationship with the world: "Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, where of the city political is only a copy." This sentiment echoes that of Socrates, who said "I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world."
They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Thus, before the rise of Christianity, Stoics advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco–Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus.
In particular, they were noted for their urging of clemency toward slaves. Seneca exhorted, "Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies."
They were also early advocates of the idea of equality of the sexes, and believed that wives should be held in common, rather than acquired like possessions.
Stoicism and Eastern Philosophical Traditions
The Stoic teachings concerning passion and apatheia bear a remarkable similarity to the ethical teaching of Siddhartha Gautama who lived more than a century before Zeno of Citium. The noble truths state that: 1) All life has suffering (Dukkha); 2) Suffering is rooted in passion and desire (Samudaya); 3) Happiness is freedom from the passions (ie. when they have ceased - Nirodha); 4) Moral restraint and self-discipline (Marga) is the means by which one becomes free from suffering.
Similar parallels could be drawn with certain of the teachings of Confucius, who also lived more than a century before Zeno, however the correspondence is not as central as in the case of Buddhism, and the primary parallel is between these two figures and Socrates, all of whom were rough contemporaries.
One also finds analogous teachings in the Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, which stresses rising above the dualities such as pleasure-pain, win-lose, to perform one's duties.
Stoicism and ChristianityDue to being non-Abrahamic in its outlook and historically prior to the Incarnation, Stoicism was naturally regarded by the Fathers of the Church as 'pagan philosophy' (as was Plato).  Nonetheless, some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism were employed by the early Christian writers. Examples include the terms "logos", "virtue", "Spirit", and "conscience". But the parallels go well beyond the sharing (or borrowing) of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature (or God), and a sense of the innate depravity--or "persistent evil"--of humankind. Stoicism influenced Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, which was highly influential in the Middle Ages in its promotion of Christian morality via secular philosophy.
For example, the Serenity Prayer:
God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things that should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other.
Modern usageThe word "stoic" now commonly refers to someone indifferent to pain, pleasure, grief, or joy. The modern usage as "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" is first cited in 1579 as a noun, and 1596 as an adjective. In contrast to the term "epicurean", the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's entry on Stoicism notes, "the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins."
Stoic quotationsBelow is a selection of quotations by major Stoic philosophers illustrating major Stoic beliefs:
- "Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire." (iv.1.175)
- "Where is the good? In the will. Where is the evil? In the will. Where is neither of them? In those things which are independent of the will." (ii.16.1)
- "Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them." (Ench. 5)
- "If, therefore, any be unhappy, let him remember that he is unhappy by reason of himself alone." (iii.24.2)
- "I am formed by nature for my own good: I am not formed for my own evil." (iii.24.83)
- "Permit nothing to cleave to you that is not your own; nothing to grow to you that may give you agony when it is torn away." (iv.1.112)
- "Get rid of the judgment, get rid of the 'I am hurt,' you are rid of the hurt itself." (viii.40)
- "Everything is right for me, which is right for you, O Universe. Nothing for me is too early or too late, which comes in due time for you. Everything is fruit to me which your seasons bring, O Nature. From you are all things, in you are all things, to you all things return." (iv.23)
- "If you work at that which is before you, following right reason seriously, vigorously, calmly, without allowing anything else to distract you, but keeping your divine part pure, as if you were bound to give it back immediately; if you hold to this, expecting nothing, but satisfied to live now according to nature, speaking heroic truth in every word which you utter, you will live happy. And there is no man able to prevent this." (iii.12)
- "How ridiculous and how strange to be surprised at anything which happens in life!" (xii.13)
- "Outward things cannot touch the soul, not in the least degree; nor have they admission to the soul, nor can they turn or move the soul; but the soul turns and moves itself alone." (iv.3)
- "Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also" (vi.19)
- "Or is it your reputation that's bothering you? But look at how soon we're all forgotten. The abyss of endless time that swallows it all. The emptiness of those applauding hands. The people who praise us; how capricious they are, how arbitrary. And the tiny region it takes place. The whole earth a point in space - and most of it uninhabited." (iv.3)
Seneca the Younger:
- "The point is, not how long you live, but how nobly you live." (Ep. 101.15)
- "That which Fortune has not given, she cannot take away." (Ep. 59.18)
- "Let Nature deal with matter, which is her own, as she pleases; let us be cheerful and brave in the face of everything, reflecting that it is nothing of our own that perishes." (De Provid.)
- "Virtue is nothing else than right reason." (Ep. 66.32)
- Antipater of Tarsus (210 BCE - 129 BCE)
- Cato the Younger (Uticensis 94 BCE - 46 BCE)
- Chrysippus (280 BCE -204 BCE)
- Cleanthes (of Assos), (330 BCE - 232 BCE)
- Diodotus, (c. 120 BCE - 59 BCE), teacher of Cicero
- Diogenes of Babylon (230 BCE - 150 BCE)
- Epictetus (55 CE - 135 CE)
- Marcus Aurelius (121 CE - 180 CE)
- Panaetius of Rhodes (185 BCE - 109 BCE)
- Posidonius of Apameia (ca. 135 BCE - 51 BCE)
- Seneca (4 BCE - 65 CE)
- Zeno of Citium (332 BCE - 262 BCE), founder of Stoicism
- A. A. Long and D. N. Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987)
- Harvard University Press Epictetus Discourses Books 1 and 2, Loeb Classical Library Nr. 131, June 1925.
- Harvard University Press Epictetus Discourses Books 3 and 4, Loeb Classical Library Nr. 218, June 1928.
- Gill C. Epictetus, The Discourses, Everyman 1995.
- Long, George Enchiridion by Epictetus, Prometheus Books, Reprint Edition, January 1955.
- Long George Discourses of Epictetus, Kessinger Publishing, January 2004.
- Moses, Hadas (ed.), Essential Works of Stoicism (1961: Bantam)
- Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (transl. Robin Campbell), Letters from a Stoic: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium (1969, reprint 2004) ISBN 0-14-044210-3
- Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Meditations, translated by Maxwell Staniforth; ISBN 0-14-044140-9, or translated by Gregory Hays; ISBN 0-679-64260-9.
- Oates Whitney Jenning The Stoic and Epicurean philosophers, The Complete Extant Writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius and Marcus Aurelius, Random House, 9th printing 1940.
- Bakalis Nikolaos, Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing, May 2005, ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
- Lawrence C. Becker, A New Stoicism (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998) ISBN 0-691-01660-7
- Tad Brennan, The Stoic Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; paperback 2006)
- Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault, (Blackwell, 1995) ISBN 0-631-18033-8
- Brad Inwood, (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to The Stoics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
- A. A. Long, Stoic Studies (Cambridge University Press, 1996; repr. University of California Press, 2001) ISBN 0-520-22974-6
- Vlassis G. Rassias, "Theois Syzen. Eisagoge ston Stoicismo", Athens, 2001, ISBN 960-7748-25-5
- John Sellars, Stoicism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006) ISBN 1-84465-053-7
- William O. Stephens, Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom (London: Continuum, 2007) ISBN 0-8264-9608-3
- Steven Strange (ed.), Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) ISBN 0-521-82709-4
- Radio Episode on Stoicism from Philosophy Talk Radio Program
- The Rebirth of Stoicism
- Stoics on the passions
- The Stoic Hearth of the Rational Good
- Stoic Registry
- Stoic Foundation
- The Stoic Place
- The Stoic Library
- International Stoic Society
- The Stoic Forum
- BBC Radio 4's In Our Time programme on Stoicism (requires RealAudio)
- Carrie-Ann Biondi, Review of Nancy Sherman's Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind, in Democratiya 10
stoicism in Arabic: رواقية
stoicism in Breton: Stoikegezh
stoicism in Catalan: Estoïcisme
stoicism in Czech: Stoicismus
stoicism in Danish: Stoicisme
stoicism in German: Stoa
stoicism in Modern Greek (1453-): Στωικισμός
stoicism in Spanish: Estoicismo
stoicism in Esperanto: Stoikismo
stoicism in French: Stoïcisme
stoicism in Croatian: Stoicizam
stoicism in Icelandic: Stóuspeki
stoicism in Italian: Stoicismo
stoicism in Hebrew: האסכולה הסטואית
stoicism in Latin: Stoicismus
stoicism in Lithuanian: Stoicizmas
stoicism in Hungarian: Sztoikus filozófia
stoicism in Macedonian: Стоицизам
stoicism in Dutch: Stoa
stoicism in Japanese: ストア派
stoicism in Norwegian: Stoikerne
stoicism in Polish: Stoicyzm
stoicism in Portuguese: Estoicismo
stoicism in Romanian: Stoa
stoicism in Russian: Стоицизм
stoicism in Slovak: Stoicizmus
stoicism in Slovenian: Stoicizem
stoicism in Finnish: Stoalaisuus
stoicism in Swedish: Stoicism
stoicism in Thai: ลัทธิสโตอิก
stoicism in Turkish: Stoacılık
stoicism in Chinese: 斯多亞學派
acceptance, ataraxia, ataraxy, austerity, backbone, bovinity, calm, calmness, coolness, dispassion, dispassionateness, dullness, easy temper, endurance, even temper, fatalism, forbearance, forbearing, forbearingness, fortitude, good temper, grit, guts, impassiveness, impassivity, imperturbability, imperturbableness, indifference, indulgence, inexcitability, inexcitableness, inirritability, insensibility, lenience, leniency, long-sufferance, long-suffering, longanimity, patience, patience of Job, patientness, perseverance, phlegm, pluck, resignation, sand, self-control, self-possession, smooth temper, steadiness, stolidity, sufferance, sweet reasonableness, tolerance, toleration, unirritableness, unnervousness, unpassionateness, unresponsiveness, waiting game, waiting it outAristotelian philosophy, Aristotelianism, Christian ethics, Encratism, Epicureanism, Friday, Lenten fare, Peripatetic school, Peripateticism, Platonic philosophy, Platonism, Pythagoreanism, Pythagorism, Rechabitism, Shakerism, Spartan fare, Stoic philosophy, abstainment, abstemiousness, abstention, abstinence, altruistic ethics, aretaics, asceticism, avoidance, banyan day, casuistry, categorical imperative, celibacy, chastity, comparative ethics, continence, deontology, egoistic ethics, empiricism, eschewal, ethical formalism, ethical philosophy, ethology, ethonomics, eudaemonics, evolutionism, fast, fish day, fruitarianism, golden rule, gymnosophy, hedonism, intuitionism, moral philosophy, nephalism, perfectionism, plain living, refraining, refrainment, sexual abstinence, simple diet, situation ethics, spare diet, teetotalism, the pledge, total abstinence, utilitarianism, vegetarianism